An action is a single activity within a test case of automated software testing. Two groups of actions are distinguished. User input devices cause basic actions. Mouse clicks and movements, keyboard clicks, or touch and swipe gestures on touchscreens belong to this group. Smart actions are the second group. They are designed to enhance the testing functionality. Switching the device orientation from “Portrait” to “Landscape” is one example among many. Actions are listed within an action list and can be viewed, structured, organized and maintained in view of Ranorex Studio. The order of actions represents the flow of activities in a test case. This chapter introduces the concept of action and their strong link to repository items.